Drospirenone is the newest type of progestin found in birth control pills. It is also used in combination with estrogen in menopausal hormone therapy.
You should not use a birth control pill that contains drospirenone if you have a history of blood clots, heart disease, or high cholesterol. You should also avoid smoking while taking this medicine.
Progestins are synthetic hormones that mimic progesterone, the natural hormone that regulates the menstrual cycle and pregnancy. They are used for contraception and in treatment of a variety of menstrual disorders, including abnormal uterine bleeding and endometriosis. They are also used as palliative treatment in advanced stages of certain cancers, including endometrial, renal, and breast cancers.
Women usually use progestins to prevent pregnancy and as part of combined birth control pills. Some progestins can thicken the lining of the uterus, controlling bleeding and sometimes stopping ovulation.
Other progestins are used to treat a variety of menstrual problems, including irregular or heavy bleeding and incontinence. They are also used to treat and prevent hyperplastic endometrial lesions that may lead to endometrial cancer.
Synthetic and bioidentical progestins are available in injectable, intravaginal, oral, and micronized forms. The oral micronized form is the preferred formulation because it can be used as a continuous delivery system for delivering consistent and stable levels of progesterone.
The synthetic progestin medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) is the most common progestin. Other commonly prescribed progestins include norethindrone acetate and megestrol acetate.
Medroxyprogesterone acetate is a synthetic hormone that metabolizes differently than the body’s own progesterone. It can cause a variety of side effects, including blood clots and liver problems.
Norethindrone acetate and drospirenone are synthetic progestins that act on the same receptors as the natural steroid progesterone. They have similar effects, but can be more likely to cause serious side effects.
They can also interfere with the amount of medicine you need to take for diabetes mellitus. If you have diabetes, talk with your doctor about whether this medication is safe for you.
Some progestins can increase your risk for heart attack or stroke. You may need to have more frequent checkups and tests for these conditions. You may need to stop taking your progestins if these problems occur.
Antiandrogens are a class of drugs that block the effects of testosterone and related androgens, such as dihydrotestosterone (DHT). They work by blocking the entrance of testosterone into the cells and preventing its biological activity.
The most common antiandrogens in the United States are flutamide (Eulexin), bicalutamide (Casodex), and nilutamide (Nilandron). All antiandrogens have potential side effects, including increased liver enzyme levels.
Drospirenone is used in combination with ethinyl estradiol to prevent pregnancy. It is also used to treat symptoms of premenstrual dysphoric disorder. It can also be used to treat uterine fibroids.
Unlike other progestins, drospirenone has a long half-life and a relatively high bioavailability. It is not metabolized by CYP450. The major metabolites are M11 and M14, both of which are pharmacologically inactive.
A recent trial of drospirenone showed that it decreased the risk of blood clots and stroke in women taking a birth control pill with drospirenone and ethinyl estradiol. This is a particularly important benefit of drospirenone for women who have a higher risk of these problems.
In addition, drospirenone has been shown to increase HDL cholesterol and decrease LDL cholesterol and triglycerides. This helps to lower the risk of heart disease and stroke, especially in women who are overweight or have high blood pressure.
Another benefit of drospirenone is that it can help to reduce the risk of breast cancer. The hormone can also slow down the growth of prostate cancer in men who have it.
In some cases, antiandrogens can stimulate cancer cells to regress when they are stopped, a phenomenon called the antiandrogen withdrawal response (AAWR). This effect occurs in about 50% of men who have their prostate cancer relapse while on an antiandrogen.
A blood clot is a semi-solid mass of dead or dying cells that can block or break away from a vein or artery and travel to different parts of the body. Some clots are normal and necessary, while others can cause serious health problems.
Your body makes a chemical called thrombin that helps break up blood clots. It also binds to fibrinogen, which forms a protein that helps keep a clot in place and stabilizes it.
When a blood clot forms, it can be stationary (called a thrombosis) or break loose and travel to various parts of the body (called an embolism). The most common types of blood clots are venous thromboembolism in the legs and pulmonary embolism in the lungs.
These clots can be life-threatening and can cause a variety of symptoms, such as chest pain or difficulty breathing. Some clots can also cause a heart attack or stroke.
To treat these clots, doctors often use medicine called blood thinners to stop the clot from growing or shrinking. These medicines are given to people who have certain conditions that put them at risk for blood clots, such as cancer, diabetes and high blood pressure.
Doctors may also try using a special kind of medicine called thrombolytics, which dissolve the clots. Thrombolytics are usually used when the clots are severe or there is a risk of serious bleeding as a side effect.
The most effective way to reduce the risk of blood clots is by following a healthy lifestyle and taking a diet rich in dietary nutrients that help prevent blood clotting, including fiber and antioxidants. Several studies have shown that eating a plant-based diet and engaging in regular exercise, as well as avoiding smoking, can significantly reduce the risk of blood clots.
Heart attack or stroke
A heart attack (myocardial infarction) occurs when the arteries that supply blood to the heart become blocked or choked with fatty deposits called plaque. During this condition, parts of the heart muscle may die or be damaged, and the heart will not get enough oxygen and nutrients to function normally.
If you have a heart attack, the first thing your doctor will do is take you to the hospital to get emergency treatment. The goal of this treatment is to stop the heart attack from getting worse and causing permanent damage to the heart or limbs.
Your doctor will also give you drugs to help prevent more blood clots and ease the strain on your heart. These drugs can also help your heart beat faster and work more effectively, so you can recover more quickly after a heart attack.
It is important to know how your medications work and when you need to take them. This can make it easier for your doctor to prescribe the right drug for you and help you avoid unwanted side effects.
Many people don’t remember to take their medicine when they are supposed to, so it is very important to keep a list of all your medications with you at all times and to take them as directed by your doctor. You can even ask your doctor to write a medication reminder note to help you remember.
You should also report any unusual side effects of drospirenone to your doctor immediately. Some common ones include changes in menstrual periods, decreased sex drive, and changes in your body weight or weight gain.
Both stroke and heart attack can be prevented by leading a healthy lifestyle with exercise, eating a balanced diet, and avoiding smoking and alcohol. You can also try taking aspirin or a similar anti-inflammatory medication daily to reduce your risk of developing these conditions.
Your liver is a vital organ that performs many important jobs in your body. It filters out poisons and helps make nutrients from food, among other tasks. But a liver problem can cause you serious health problems.
Liver problems can be caused by many things, including viruses, infections, and certain medicines. Often these diseases are discovered by accident, when an x-ray is taken or blood is drawn for another reason.
Hepatitis A is a disease that is usually not harmful but can lead to liver damage and cirrhosis (scarring of the liver). You can get hepatitis A by eating or drinking something that has been contaminated with fecal matter. The virus can be treated with medications and surgery, but if the infection is severe, you may need a liver transplant.
In addition, some inherited disorders can lead to liver damage and cirrhosis. Cystic fibrosis and hepatitis B and C are both inherited disorders that can cause cirrhosis.
Another liver problem is called simple fatty liver, which occurs when there is a buildup of fat in the liver without any inflammation or scarring. This is often a condition that can be prevented with weight loss, exercise, and other healthy lifestyle habits.
Symptoms of fatty liver can include abdominal pain, fatigue, a lump in the upper left side of the stomach, nausea or vomiting, indigestion, and weight gain. If you have fatty liver, ask your doctor about getting a hepatoprotective diet and other measures to help prevent liver damage.
Some people with cirrhosis of the liver develop a buildup of toxins in their blood and in their brains, which affects their mental function. The toxins in the brain can cause confusion, mood changes, trouble sleeping, and a change in memory.